References – Nebulised magnesium sulphate (NMS) in acute asthma

(1) Lyttle M.D., O’Sullivan R., Doull I., Hartshorn S., Morris I., Powell CVE. Variation in treatment of acute childhood wheeze in emergency departments of the United Kingdom and Ireland: An international survey of clinician practice. Arch Dis Child 2015 01 Feb 2015;100(2):121-125.

(2) BTS/ SIGN. British Guideline on the Management of Asthma. 2014.

(3) Hossein S, Pegah A, Davood F, Said A, Babak M, Mani M, et al. The effect of nebulized magnesium sulfate in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma attacks: A randomized clinical trial. Am J Emerg Med 2016.

(4) Singhi S., Bansal A., Chopra K., Grover S. Randomized comparison of magnesium sulfate, terbutaline and aminophylline infusion in acute severe asthma in children. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine.Conference: 6th World Congress on Pediatric Critical Care: One World Sharing Knowledge Sydney, NSW Australia.Conference Start: 20110313 Conference End: 20110317.Conference Publication: (var.pagings) 2011 May 2011;12(3 SUPPL. 1):A1.

(5) Nicklas RA. National and international guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. Curr Opin Pulm Med 1997 Jan;3(1):51-55.

(6) Porter R, Nester B, Braitman L, Geary U, Dalsey W. Intravenous magnesium is ineffective in adult asthma, a randomized trial. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2001;8(1):9-15.

(7) Lougheed MD, Lemière C, Dell SD, Ducharme FM, FitzGerald JM, Leigh R, et al. Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Management Continuum–2010 Consensus Summary for children six years of age and over, and adults. Canadian Respiratory Journal 2010;17(1):15-24.

(8) Alter HJ, Koepsell TD, Hilty WM. Intravenous Magnesium as an Adjuvant in Acute Bronchospasm: A Meta-Analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2000;36(3):191-197.

(9) Noppen M, Vanmaele L, Impens N, Schandevyl W. Bronchodilating effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate in acute severe bronchial asthma. CHEST Journal 1990;97(2):373-376.

(10) Silverman RA, Osborn H, Runge J, Gallagher EJ, Chiang W, Feldman J, et al. IV magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute severe asthma: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. CHEST Journal 2002;122(2):489-497.

(11) Kumar SA, Shailendranath G, Raj K. A randomized controlled trial of intravenous magnesium sulphate as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute severe asthma. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2008;7(4):221-229.

(12) Kowal A, Panaszek B, Barg W, Obojski A. The use of magnesium in bronchial asthma: a new approach to an old problem. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz ) 2007;55(1):35-39.

(13) Bloch H, Silverman R, Mancherje N, Grant S, Jagminas L, Scharf SM. Intravenous magnesium sulfate as an adjunct in the treatment of acute asthma. Chest 1995;107(6):1576-1581.

(14) Ciarallo L, Sauer AH, Shannon MW. Intravenous magnesium therapy for moderate to severe pediatric asthma: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr 1996 Dec;129(6):809-814.

(15) Torres S, Sticco N, Bosch JJ, Iolster T, Siaba A, Rocca Rivarola M, et al. Effectiveness of magnesium sulfate as initial treatment of acute severe asthma in children, conducted in a tertiary-level university hospital: a randomized, controlled trial. Arch Argent Pediatr 2012 Aug;110(4):291-296.

(16) Song W, Chang Y. Magnesium sulfate for acute asthma in adults: a systematic literature review. Asia Pacific Allergy 2012;2(1):76-85.

(17) de Valk HW, Kok PT, Struyvenberg A, van Rijn HJ, Haalboom JR, Kreukniet J, et al. Extracellular and intracellular magnesium concentrations in asthmatic patients. Eur Respir J 1993 Sep;6(8):1122-1125.

(18) Haury VG. Blood serum magnesium in bronchial asthma and its treatment by the administration of magnesium sulfate. J Lab Clin Med 1940;26:340-344.

(19) Fantidis P, Ruiz Cacho J, Marin M, Madero Jarabo R, Solera J, Herrero E. Intracellular (polymorphonuclear) magnesium content in patients with bronchial asthma between attacks. J R Soc Med 1995 Aug;88(8):441-445.

(20) Hashimoto Y, Nishimura Y, Maeda H, Yokoyama M. Assessment of magnesium status in patients with bronchial asthma. Journal of Asthma 2000;37(6):489-496.

(21) GontijoAmaral C., Ribeiro M.A.G.O., Gontijo L.S.C., CondinoNeto A., Ribeiro JD. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007 January 2007;61(1):54-60.

(22) Powell C, Dwan K, Milan SJ, Beasley R, Hughes R, Knopp-Sihota JA, et al. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012;12:003898.

(23) Mangat HS, D’Souza GA, Jacob MS. Nebulized magnesium sulphate versus nebulized salbutamol in acute bronchial asthma: a clinical trial. Eur Respir J 1998 Aug;12(2):341-344.

(24) Meral A., Coker M., Tanac R. Inhalation therapy with magnesium sulfate and salbutamol sulfate in bronchial asthma. Turk J Pediatr 1996 1996;38(2):169-175.

(25) Mahajan P, Haritos D, Rosenberg N, Thomas R. Comparison of nebulized magnesium sulfate plus albuterol to nebulized albuterol plus saline in children with acute exacerbations of mild to moderate asthma. J Emerg Med 2004 Jul;27(1):21-25.

(26) Aggarwal P, Sharad S, Handa R, Dwiwedi SN, Irshad M. Comparison of nebulised magnesium sulphate and salbutamol combined with salbutamol alone in the treatment of acute bronchial asthma: a randomised study. Emerg Med J 2006 May;23(5):358-362.

(27) Khashabi J, Asadolahi S, Karamiyar M, Salari lS. Comparison of magnesium sulfate to saline as a vehicle for nebulized salbutamol in children with acute asthma; A clinical trial: 432. Allergy 2008 June;63(88) (Supplement):172.

(28) Ashtekar C, Powell C, Hood K, Doull I. Magnesium nebuliser trial (magnet): a randomised double-blind placebo controlled pilot study in severe acute asthma. Arch Dis Child 2008;93:A100-6.

(29) Neki N. A comparative clinical efficacy and safety profile of inhaled magnesium sulphate and salbutamol nebulisations in severe asthma. Indian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology 2006;20:131.

(30) Dadhich P, Vats M, Lokendra D, Gupta RC, Gupta ML, Gupta N. Magnesium sulphate nebulization in acute severe asthma. CHEST Journal 2003;124(4_MeetingAbstracts):107S-107S.

(31) Drobina BJ, Kostic MA, Roos JA. Nebulized magnesium has no benefit in the treatment of acute asthma in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2006;13(5 Supplement 1):S26.

(32) Chande VT, Skoner DP. A trial of nebulized magnesium sulfate to reverse bronchospasm in asthmatic patients. Ann Emerg Med 1992 Sep;21(9):1111-1115.

(33) Wang H, Xiong Y, Gong C, Yin L, Yan L, Yuan X, et al. Effect of inhaled magnesium sulfate on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Indian J Pediatr 2015 Apr;82(4):321-327.

(34) Sun Y.X., Gong C.H., Liu S., Yuan X.P., Yin L.J., Yan L., et al. Effect of inhaled MgSO4 on FEV1 and PEF in children with asthma induced by acetylcholine: a randomized controlled clinical trail of 330 cases. J Trop Pediatr 2014 Apr 2014;60(2):141-147.

(35) Bhatnagar P, Guleria R, Kukreti R. Pharmacogenomics of β2-agonist: key focus on signaling pathways. Pharmacogenomics 2006;7(6):919-933.

(36) Alansari K., Ahmed W., Davidson B.L., Alamri M., Zakaria I., Alrifaai M. Nebulized magnesium for moderate and severe pediatric asthma: A randomized trial. Pediatr Pulmonol 2015 01 Dec 2015;50(12):1191-1199.

(37) Badawy M. Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate in Children With Moderate to Severe Asthma Exacerbation<br /> <br /> . 2016; Available at:

(38) Daengsuwan T. Comparative Efficacy Nebulized and Intravenous Magnesium Sulphate in Thai Children <br /> . 2016; Available at:

(39) Goodacre S, Cohen J, Bradburn M, Gray A, Benger J, Coats T. Intravenous or nebulised magnesium sulphate versus standard therapy for severe acute asthma (3Mg trial): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013;1(4):293-300.

(40) Hughes R, Goldkorn A, Masoli M, Weatherall M, Burgess C, Beasley R. Use of isotonic nebulised magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to salbutamol in treatment of severe asthma in adults: randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet 2003;361(9375):2114-2117.

(41) Mohammadzadeh I., Mohammadi M., Khodabakhsh E. The effect of nebulised salbutamol plus magnesium sulfate in comparison with nebulised salbutamol plus normal saline in acute asthmatic attack in children. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences 2014 2014;16(3):7-12.

(42) Powell C, Kolamunnage-Dona R, Lowe J, Boland A, Petrou S, Doull I, et al. Magnesium sulphate in acute severe asthma in children (MAGNETIC): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013 Jun;1(4):301-308.

(43) Saucedo JAU. Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate as an Adjunct to Standard Therapy in Asthma Exacerbation <br /> . 2016; Available at:

(44) Schuh S, Sweeney J, Freedman SB, Coates AL, Johnson DW, Thompson G, et al. Magnesium nebulization utilization in management of pediatric asthma (MagNUM PA) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2016;17(1):1.

(45) Watanatham, Sureerat P, Gun V, Mukda D, Tassalapa. Comparison Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Magnesium Sulfate to Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate in Childhood Severe Asthma Exacerbation: 776. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology 2015 February;135(2) (Supplement):AB241.

(46) Wright LE. Intravenous therapy for acute asthma in children: What about the very young?. Thorax 2009. December 2009;64:A101.

(47) Mason T. G277 Use of Nebulised Magnesium Sulphate for Acute Wheeze in Children–Current Extent of Use and Opinions 2017.